fulfills a Foundation Requirement in Symbolic Reasoning and articulates
with UH Manoa’s Philosophy 110
Instructor: Ronald C. Pine, PhD
office: Bldg 7, Rm 625
phone: 845-9163 (& voice mail)
- 1 hour in class = 2 hours outside class
- Should be able to read and write at the College level.
- Since the ability to comprehend what you read is a
prerequisite skill in logical reasoning, students are advised to take
the necessary English courses either prior to or concurrently with
- The course develops basic techniques of analysis and an
understanding of the principles and concepts involved in clear
thinking. Emphasized will be logical validity, deductive and inductive
reasoning, fallacious arguments, symbolic logic, and scientific method
as applied to criteria of reasonable evidence.
This course fulfills the Symbolic Reasoning requirement for the
Foundation requirement for Honolulu Community College and the
University of Hawaii at Manoa. See the Manoa
General Education requirements.
- Because we live in a highly technological society, students
should gain a basic understanding and appreciation of formal reasoning
and its connection with the informal reasoning of every day life.
Students should also gain an understanding of the basic software
foundations for our machines (computers, game consoles, cell phones,
etc.), and the process of putting human thoughts into these machines.
Additionally, the course is based on the assumption that the less we
think critically the more someone else will think for us -- usually
with the intention of manipulating us. From this point of view, logic
can be viewed as a defensive tool enabling each of us to defend
ourselves against the onslaught of persuasive appeals that bombard our
minds daily. As such it is an important element in the development of
individual potential -- enabling us to be freer and more decisive
||Course Objectives and Outcomes: Students will:
- demonstrate an understanding of the beauty and power of
symbolic systems, as well as their clarity and precision, through use
of techniques of logical analysis, with the intention of enhancing the
student's reasoning skills and appreciation of abstraction, pattern
recognition, and formal systems of analysis
- demonstrate an understanding the concept of logical proof
as a chain of inferences by producing symbolic chains of inferences of
- demonstrate skill in hypothetical reasoning, and gain
experience in the presentation and critical evaluation of evidence.
- demonstrate an ability to use symbolic techniques and
formal rules in the context of problem solving by applying symbolic
analysis techniques (translating, formal proof techniques, truth
tables, argument pattern recognition) both to informal (fallacies) and
A. Introductory lectures covering
basic terminology. (15%; Chapters 1-3)
B. Common logical (informal)
fallacies. Students will be expected to read the daily newspaper and
other periodicals and be cognizant of local, national, and
international issues. (15%, Chapters 4-5) (An excellent source for understanding national
and international issues, and one that will be used often in this
class, is the New York Times.)
In this section of the course, considerable
emphasis will be placed on the formal presentation and critical
evaluation of evidence. (An excellent source for understanding
national and international issues, and one that will be used often in
this class, is the New York Times.)
- Reading carefully -- recognizing arguments and persuasive
- Argument analysis -- premises and conclusions.
- Deductive and Inductive reasoning.
- Valid, Invalid, and Sound arguments.
to be learned:
|1. Appeals to Authority
||11. Ad Hominem Abusive
|2. Appeals to Popularity
||12. Ad Hominem Circumstantial
|3. Appeals to Loyalty
||13. Questionable Dilemma
||14. Straw Person
|5. Traditional Wisdom
||15. Suppressed Evidence
|6. Two Wrongs Make a Right
|7. Hasty Conclusion
||17. Begging the Question
|8. Questionable Cause
||18. Irrelevant Reason
|9. Questionable Analogy
||19. Complex Question
|10. Slippery Slope
||20. Appeal to Ignorance
C. Basic skills of symbolic
logic. Although the material will be presented by lecture and class
handouts, a significant proportion of the work will consist of student
learning groups. Students will often be asked to form groups and
compare answers to homework problems. (70%, Chapters 7-10)
1. Symbolic Translation.
2. Truth Tables.
3. Formal Proofs of Validity (Copi's Nineteen Rules of Inference.)
4. Brief Truth Tables.
5. Multivalued (Fuzzy) Logic.
- Since this course involves a step by step introduction of
material, class attendance is very important.
- There will be ten quizzes (20pts. each = 200 pts.), one
exam on informal fallacies (100 pts.), and a final exam covering
symbolic logic (150 pts.).
- There will be no make-ups of individual quizzes, but there
will be an extra-credit-day (50 pts.) prior to the final.
- Points gained on the extra-credit-day can be used to make
up the points of missed quizzes, provided that a student has a
good reason for missing a quiz and has communicated that reason to the
- Also, with the exception of the "A" grade, extra credit
points can be used to boost a student's final grade one letter grade.
- Regular class attendance and participation in collaboration
activities are important in borderline cases.
- This will be explained further in class. The final grade
will be based on a percentage of the total points as follows:
- 100-90% = A
- 89-80% = B
- 79-66% = C
- 65-55% = D
- 54% = F, N or Inc.
- Please note that the "N" and "Inc." grades are given only
for special circumstances.
Special Note: Students with disabilities
information on available services online at
Specific inquires may be made by contacting Student ACCESS at (808)
voice/text, by e-mail at email@example.com, or simply stopping by
ACCESS located in Bldg. 7, Rm. 319.
| Advise: How to be Successful in this Class