Essential Logic: Basic Reasoning Skills for the 21st Century
by
Ronald C. Pine

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Instructor Preface

Student Introduction

Chapter 1: Why Study Logic

  1. Logic as a Defensive Tool
  2. Deductive Reasoning
  3. Valid, Invalid, and Sound Arguments
  4. Logic and Belief Testing
  5. Key Terminology
  6. Concept Summary
  7. Exercises
Chapter 2: Arguments and Language
  1. Recognizing Arguments
  2. Other Uses of Language
  3. Meaning and Clarification
  4. What is Truth?
  5. Key Terminology
  6. Concept Summary
  7. Exercises
Chapter 3: Inductive Reasoning and Reasonable Beliefs
  1. Deduction and Induction
  2. Induction and Reliable Beliefs
  3. Induction: A Case Study
  4. Logic and Creativity
  5. Key Terminology
  6. Concept Summary
  7. Exercises
Chapter 4: Informal Fallacies I
  1. Introduction
  2. The Value of Abstraction
  3. Fallacies of Relevance
  4. Appeal to Popularity
  5. Appeal to Authority
  6. Traditional Wisdom
  7. Provincialism
  8. Appeal to Loyalty
  9. Two Wrongs Make a Right
  10. Ad Hominem Abusive and Circumstantial
  11. Irrelevant Reason
  12. Key Terminology
  13. Concept Summary
  14. Exercises
Chapter 5: Informal Fallacies II
  1. Introduction
  2. Fallacies of Questionable Premise
  3. Slippery Slope
  4. Questionable Dilemma
  5. Straw Person
  6. Fallacies of Weak Induction
  7. Hasty Conclusion
  8. Questionable Cause
  9. Appeal to Ignorance
  10. Fallacies of Presumption
  11. Begging the Question
  12. Complex Question
  13. Ambiguity-Equivocation
  14. Questionable Analogy
  15. Suppressed Evidence
  16. Key Terminology
  17. Concept Summary
  18. Exercises
Chapter 6: Logic and Hope
  1. Exercises
Chapter 7: Symbolic Translation
  1. Introduction
  2. Logical Connectives
  3. Usage Dictionary of Logical Connectives
  4. Exercises I
  5. Exercises II
  6. Complex Translations and the Use of Parentheses
  7. Exercises III
  8. Exercises IV
  9. Exercise V
Chapter 8: Bit Brains, Logical Connectives & Truth Tables
  1. Introduction
  2. Symbolic Pictures of Logical Connectives: "And, "Or, and "Not"
  3. Exercises I
  4. Logical Connectives Continued: "If..., then..." and "If and only if"
  5. Final Truth Table for Logical Connectives
  6. Exercises II
  7. Short Cuts and Human Learning
  8. Truth Tables, Validity, and Logical Pictures
  9. Exercises III
  10. Exercises IV
  11. Argument Forms and Variables
  12. Exercises V
  13. Brief Truth Tables
  14. Exercises VI
Chapter 9: Symbolic Trails and Formal Proofs of Validity, Part 1
  1. Introduction
  2. Constructing Formal Proofs of Validity
  3. Step 1: Recognizing Forms -- Copi's 9 Rules of Inference
  4. Step 1 Exercises
  5. Strategies For Pattern Recognition
  6. Step 2: Justifying Reasoning Trails with the Rules of Inference
  7. Step 2 Exercises
  8. Step 3: On Your Own, Constructing Formal Proofs with the Rules of Inference
  9. Step 3 Exercises
  10. Translations and Formal Proofs
Chapter 10: Symbolic Trails and Formal Proofs of Validity, Part 2
  1. Introduction
  2. The Nineteen Rules
  3. Application Practice
  4. Step 4: Rules of Replacement Exercises
  5. Common Sense Origins
  6. Strategies for Pattern
  7. Recognition Revisited
  8. Step 5 Exercises
  9. Subroutines
  10. Direction, Strategies, and Working Backwards
  11. Step 6 Exercises
  12. Brief Truth Tables Revisited and Decision Strategies
  13. Translations
  14. Clarification Exercises
  15. Holiday Adventures
Chapter 11: Other Logical Tools: Syllogisms and Quantification
  1. Introduction
  2. Syllogisms and Quantification Logic
  3. Usage Dictionary
  4. Dictionary Elaboration
  5. Exercises I
  6. Proving Validity in Quantification Logic
  7. The Square of Opposition and Change of Quantifier Rules
  8. Exercises II
  9. Exercise III
  10. Exercise IV
  11. Exercises V
  12. Exercises VI
  13. Exercises VII
  14. Final Note
Chapter 12: Frontiers of Logic -- Fuzzy Logic: Can Aristotle and the Buddha get along?