- Logic as a Defensive Tool
- Deductive Reasoning
- Valid, Invalid, and Sound Arguments

- Logic and Belief Testing
- Key Terminology
- Concept Summary
- Exercises

- Recognizing Arguments
- Other Uses of Language
- Meaning and Clarification
- What is Truth?
- Key Terminology
- Concept Summary
- Exercises

- Deduction and Induction
- Induction and Reliable Beliefs
- Induction: A Case Study
- Logic and Creativity
- Key Terminology
- Concept Summary
- Exercises

- Introduction
- The Value of Abstraction
- Fallacies of Relevance
- Appeal to Popularity
- Appeal to Authority
- Traditional Wisdom
- Provincialism
- Appeal to Loyalty
- Two Wrongs Make a Right
- Ad Hominem Abusive and Circumstantial
- Irrelevant Reason
- Key Terminology
- Concept Summary
- Exercises

- Introduction
- Fallacies of Questionable Premise
- Slippery Slope
- Questionable Dilemma
- Straw Person
- Fallacies of Weak Induction
- Hasty Conclusion
- Questionable Cause
- Appeal to Ignorance
- Fallacies of Presumption
- Begging the Question
- Complex Question
- Ambiguity-Equivocation
- Questionable Analogy

- Suppressed Evidence
- Key Terminology
- Concept Summary
- Exercises

- Exercises

- Introduction
- Logical Connectives
- Usage Dictionary of Logical Connectives
- Exercises I
- Exercises II
- Complex Translations and the Use of Parentheses
- Exercises III
- Exercises IV
- Exercise V

- Introduction
- Symbolic Pictures of Logical Connectives: "And, "Or, and "Not"
- Exercises I
- Logical Connectives Continued: "If..., then..." and "If and only if"
- Final Truth Table for Logical Connectives
- Exercises II
- Short Cuts and Human Learning
- Truth Tables, Validity, and Logical Pictures
- Exercises III
- Exercises IV
- Argument Forms and Variables
- Exercises V
- Brief Truth Tables
- Exercises VI

- Introduction
- Constructing Formal Proofs of Validity
- Step 1: Recognizing Forms -- Copi's 9 Rules of Inference
- Step 1 Exercises
- Strategies For Pattern Recognition
- Step 2: Justifying Reasoning Trails with the Rules of Inference
- Step 2 Exercises
- Step 3: On Your Own, Constructing Formal Proofs with the Rules of Inference
- Step 3 Exercises
- Translations and Formal Proofs

- Introduction
- The Nineteen Rules
- Application Practice
- Step 4: Rules of Replacement Exercises
- Common Sense Origins
- Strategies for Pattern
- Recognition Revisited
- Step 5 Exercises
- Subroutines
- Direction, Strategies, and Working Backwards
- Step 6 Exercises
- Brief Truth Tables Revisited and Decision Strategies
- Translations
- Clarification Exercises
- Holiday Adventures

- Introduction
- Syllogisms and Quantification Logic
- Usage Dictionary
- Dictionary Elaboration
- Exercises I
- Proving Validity in Quantification Logic
- The Square of Opposition and Change of Quantifier Rules
- Exercises II
- Exercise III
- Exercise IV
- Exercises V
- Exercises VI
- Exercises VII
- Final Note

- Introduction
- Bivalent Logic and Paradoxes
- Fuzzy Interpretations and Degrees of Truth
- Fuzzy Conditionals and Fuzzy Validity
- Resolution of Paradoxes and Implications
- Philosophy: What about reality?
- Exercises I
- Exercises II-IV
- Exercises V